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      1. 首页»Java WEB»史上最全最强SpringMVC详细示例实战教程

        史上最全最强SpringMVC详细示例实战教程

        来源:Sunnier 发布时间:2015-06-22 阅读次数:

         一、SpringMVC基础入门,创建一个HelloWorld程序

          1.首先,导入SpringMVC需要的jar包。

          2.添加Web.xml配置文件中关于SpringMVC的配置

          <!--configure the setting of springmvcDispatcherServlet and configure the mapping-->
          <servlet>
              <servlet-name>springmvc</servlet-name>
              <servlet-class>org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet</servlet-class>
              <init-param>
                    <param-name>contextConfigLocation</param-name>
                    <param-value>classpath:springmvc-servlet.xml</param-value>
                </init-param>
                <!-- <load-on-startup>1</load-on-startup> -->
          </servlet>
        
          <servlet-mapping>
              <servlet-name>springmvc</servlet-name>
              <url-pattern>/</url-pattern>
          </servlet-mapping>

          3.在src下添加springmvc-servlet.xml配置文件

        <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
        <beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
            xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
            xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"
            xmlns:mvc="http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc"
            xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
                http://www.springframework.org/schema/context http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context-4.1.xsd
                http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc/spring-mvc-4.1.xsd">                    
        
            <!-- scan the package and the sub package -->
            <context:component-scan base-package="test.SpringMVC"/>
        
            <!-- don't handle the static resource -->
            <mvc:default-servlet-handler />
        
            <!-- if you use annotation you must configure following setting -->
            <mvc:annotation-driven />
            
            <!-- configure the InternalResourceViewResolver -->
            <bean class="org.springframework.web.servlet.view.InternalResourceViewResolver" 
                    id="internalResourceViewResolver">
                <!-- 前缀 -->
                <property name="prefix" value="/WEB-INF/jsp/" />
                <!-- 后缀 -->
                <property name="suffix" value=".jsp" />
            </bean>
        </beans>

          4.在WEB-INF文件夹下创建名为jsp的文件夹,用?#21019;?#25918;jsp视图。创建一个hello.jsp,在body中添加“Hello World”。

          5.建立包及Controller,如下所示

          6.编写Controller代码

        @Controller
        @RequestMapping("/mvc")
        public class mvcController {
        
            @RequestMapping("/hello")
            public String hello(){        
                return "hello";
            }
        }

          7.启动服务器,键入 http://localhost:8080/项目名/mvc/hello

         二、配置解析

          1.Dispatcherservlet

          DispatcherServlet是前置控制器,配置在web.xml文件中的。拦截匹配的请求,Servlet拦截匹配规则要自已定义,把拦截下来的请求,依据相应的规则分发到目标Controller?#21019;?#29702;,是配置spring MVC的第一步。

          2.InternalResourceViewResolver

          视图名称解析器

          3.以上出现的注解

          @Controller 负责注册一个bean 到spring 上下文中

          @RequestMapping 注解为控制器指定可以处理哪些 URL 请求

         三、SpringMVC常用注解

          @Controller

          负责注册一个bean 到spring 上下文中

          @RequestMapping

          注解为控制器指定可以处理哪些 URL 请求

          @RequestBody

          该注解用于读取Request请求的body部分数据,使用系统默认配置的HttpMessageConverter进行解析,然后把相应的数据绑定到要返回的对象上 ,再把HttpMessageConverter返回的对象数据绑定到 controller中方法的参数上

          @ResponseBody

          该注解用于将Controller的方法返回的对象,通过?#23454;?#30340;HttpMessageConverter转换为指定格式后,写入到Response对象的body数据区

          @ModelAttribute    

          在方法定义上使用 @ModelAttribute 注解:Spring MVC 在调用目标处理方法前,会先逐个调用在方法级上标注了@ModelAttribute 的方法

          在方法的入参前使用 @ModelAttribute 注解:可以从隐含对象中获取隐含的模型数据中获取对象,再将请求参数 –绑定到对象中,再传入入参将方法入参对象添加到模型中 

          @RequestParam 

          在处理方法入参处使用 @RequestParam 可以把请求参 数传递给请求方法

          @PathVariable

          绑定 URL 占位符到入参

          @ExceptionHandler

          注解到方法上,出现异常时会执行该方法

          @ControllerAdvice

          使一个Contoller成为全局的异常处理类,类中用@ExceptionHandler方法注解的方法可以处理所有Controller发生的异常

         四、自动匹配参数

          //match automatically
          @RequestMapping("/person")
          public String toPerson(String name,double age){
              System.out.println(name+" "+age);
              return "hello";
          }

         五、自动装箱

          1.编写一个Person实体类

        package test.SpringMVC.model;
        
        public class Person {
            public String getName() {
                return name;
            }
            public void setName(String name) {
                this.name = name;
            }
            public int getAge() {
                return age;
            }
            public void setAge(int age) {
                this.age = age;
            }
            private String name;
            private int age;
            
        }

          2.在Controller里编写方法

          //boxing automatically
          @RequestMapping("/person1")
          public String toPerson(Person p){
              System.out.println(p.getName()+" "+p.getAge());
              return "hello";
          }

         六、使用InitBinder?#21019;?#29702;Date类型的参数

         //the parameter was converted in initBinder
         @RequestMapping("/date")
         public String date(Date date){
             System.out.println(date);
             return "hello";
         }
            
         //At the time of initialization,convert the type "String" to type "date"
         @InitBinder
         public void initBinder(ServletRequestDataBinder binder){
             binder.registerCustomEditor(Date.class, new CustomDateEditor(new SimpleDateFormat("yyyy-MM-dd"),
                     true));
         }

         七、向前台传递参数

         //pass the parameters to front-end
         @RequestMapping("/show")
         public String showPerson(Map<String,Object> map){
             Person p =new Person();
             map.put("p", p);
             p.setAge(20);
             p.setName("jayjay");
             return "show";
         }

          前台可在Request域中取到"p"

         八、使用Ajax调用

         //pass the parameters to front-end using ajax
         @RequestMapping("/getPerson")
         public void getPerson(String name,PrintWriter pw){
             pw.write("hello,"+name);        
         }
         @RequestMapping("/name")
         public String sayHello(){
             return "name";
         }

          前台用下面的Jquery代码调用

         $(function(){
             $("#btn").click(function(){
                $.post("mvc/getPerson",{name:$("#name").val()},function(data){
                     alert(data);
                 });
             });
         });

         九、在Controller中使用redirect方式处理请求

          //redirect 
          @RequestMapping("/redirect")
          public String redirect(){
              return "redirect:hello";
          }

         十、文件上传

          1.需要导入两个jar包

          2.在SpringMVC配置文件中加入

          <!-- upload settings -->
          <bean id="multipartResolver"  class="org.springframework.web.multipart.commons.CommonsMultipartResolver">
              <property name="maxUploadSize" value="102400000"></property>
          </bean>

          3.方法代码

            @RequestMapping(value="/upload",method=RequestMethod.POST)
            public String upload(HttpServletRequest req) throws Exception{
                MultipartHttpServletRequest mreq = (MultipartHttpServletRequest)req;
                MultipartFile file = mreq.getFile("file");
                String fileName = file.getOriginalFilename();
                SimpleDateFormat sdf = new SimpleDateFormat("yyyyMMddHHmmss");        
                FileOutputStream fos = new FileOutputStream(req.getSession().getServletContext().getRealPath("/")+
                        "upload/"+sdf.format(new Date())+fileName.substring(fileName.lastIndexOf('.')));
                fos.write(file.getBytes());
                fos.flush();
                fos.close();
                
                return "hello";
            }

          4.前台form表单

           <form action="mvc/upload" method="post" enctype="multipart/form-data">
               <input type="file" name="file"><br>
               <input type="submit" value="submit">
           </form>

         十一、使用@RequestParam注解指定参数的name

        @Controller
        @RequestMapping("/test")
        public class mvcController1 {
            @RequestMapping(value="/param")
            public String testRequestParam(@RequestParam(value="id") Integer id,
                    @RequestParam(value="name")String name){
                System.out.println(id+" "+name);
                return "/hello";
            }    
        }

         十二、RESTFul风格的SringMVC

          1.RestController

        @Controller
        @RequestMapping("/rest")
        public class RestController {
            @RequestMapping(value="/user/{id}",method=RequestMethod.GET)
            public String get(@PathVariable("id") Integer id){
                System.out.println("get"+id);
                return "/hello";
            }
            
            @RequestMapping(value="/user/{id}",method=RequestMethod.POST)
            public String post(@PathVariable("id") Integer id){
                System.out.println("post"+id);
                return "/hello";
            }
            
            @RequestMapping(value="/user/{id}",method=RequestMethod.PUT)
            public String put(@PathVariable("id") Integer id){
                System.out.println("put"+id);
                return "/hello";
            }
            
            @RequestMapping(value="/user/{id}",method=RequestMethod.DELETE)
            public String delete(@PathVariable("id") Integer id){
                System.out.println("delete"+id);
                return "/hello";
            }
            
        }

          2.form表单发送put和delete请求

          在web.xml中配置

          <!-- configure the HiddenHttpMethodFilter,convert the post method to put or delete -->
          <filter>
              <filter-name>HiddenHttpMethodFilter</filter-name>
              <filter-class>org.springframework.web.filter.HiddenHttpMethodFilter</filter-class>
          </filter>
          <filter-mapping>
              <filter-name>HiddenHttpMethodFilter</filter-name>
              <url-pattern>/*</url-pattern>
          </filter-mapping>

          在前台可以用以下代码产生请求

            <form action="rest/user/1" method="post">
                <input type="hidden" name="_method" value="PUT">
                <input type="submit" value="put">
            </form>
            
            <form action="rest/user/1" method="post">
                <input type="submit" value="post">
            </form>
            
            <form action="rest/user/1" method="get">
                <input type="submit" value="get">
            </form>
            
            <form action="rest/user/1" method="post">
                <input type="hidden" name="_method" value="DELETE">
                <input type="submit" value="delete">
            </form>

         十三、返回json格式的字符串

          1.导入以下jar包

          2.方法代码

        @Controller
        @RequestMapping("/json")
        public class jsonController {
            
            @ResponseBody
            @RequestMapping("/user")
            public  User get(){
                User u = new User();
                u.setId(1);
                u.setName("jayjay");
                u.setBirth(new Date());
                return u;
            }
        }

         十四、异常的处理

          1.处理局部异常(Controller内)

         @ExceptionHandler
         public ModelAndView exceptionHandler(Exception ex){
             ModelAndView mv = new ModelAndView("error");
             mv.addObject("exception", ex);
             System.out.println("in testExceptionHandler");
             return mv;
         }
            
         @RequestMapping("/error")
         public String error(){
             int i = 5/0;
             return "hello";
         }

          2.处理全局异常(所有Controller)

        @ControllerAdvice
        public class testControllerAdvice {
            @ExceptionHandler
            public ModelAndView exceptionHandler(Exception ex){
                ModelAndView mv = new ModelAndView("error");
                mv.addObject("exception", ex);
                System.out.println("in testControllerAdvice");
                return mv;
            }
        }

          3.另一种处理全局异常的方法

          在SpringMVC配置文件中配置

          <!-- configure SimpleMappingExceptionResolver -->
          <bean class="org.springframework.web.servlet.handler.SimpleMappingExceptionResolver">
              <property name="exceptionMappings">
                  <props>
                      <prop key="java.lang.ArithmeticException">error</prop>
                  </props>
              </property>
          </bean>

          error是出错页面

         十五、设置一个自定义拦截器

          1.创建一个MyInterceptor类,并实现HandlerInterceptor接口

        public class MyInterceptor implements HandlerInterceptor {
        
            @Override
            public void afterCompletion(HttpServletRequest arg0,
                    HttpServletResponse arg1, Object arg2, Exception arg3)
                    throws Exception {
                System.out.println("afterCompletion");
            }
        
            @Override
            public void postHandle(HttpServletRequest arg0, HttpServletResponse arg1,
                    Object arg2, ModelAndView arg3) throws Exception {
                System.out.println("postHandle");
            }
        
            @Override
            public boolean preHandle(HttpServletRequest arg0, HttpServletResponse arg1,
                    Object arg2) throws Exception {
                System.out.println("preHandle");
                return true;
            }
        
        }

          2.在SpringMVC的配置文件中配置

            <!-- interceptor setting -->
            <mvc:interceptors>
                <mvc:interceptor>
                    <mvc:mapping path="/mvc/**"/>
                    <bean class="test.SpringMVC.Interceptor.MyInterceptor"></bean>
                </mvc:interceptor>        
            </mvc:interceptors>

          3.拦截器执行顺序

         十六、表单的验证(使用Hibernate-validate)及国际化

          1.导入Hibernate-validate需要的jar包

        (未选中不用导入)

          2.编写实体类User并加上验证注解

        public class User {
            public int getId() {
                return id;
            }
            public void setId(int id) {
                this.id = id;
            }
            public String getName() {
                return name;
            }
            public void setName(String name) {
                this.name = name;
            }
            public Date getBirth() {
                return birth;
            }
            public void setBirth(Date birth) {
                this.birth = birth;
            }
            @Override
            public String toString() {
                return "User [id=" + id + ", name=" + name + ", birth=" + birth + "]";
            }    
            private int id;
            @NotEmpty
            private String name;
        
            @Past
            @DateTimeFormat(pattern="yyyy-MM-dd")
            private Date birth;
        }

          ps:@Past表示时间必须是一个过去值

          3.在jsp中使用SpringMVC的form表单

            <form:form action="form/add" method="post" modelAttribute="user">
                id:<form:input path="id"/><form:errors path="id"/><br>
                name:<form:input path="name"/><form:errors path="name"/><br>
                birth:<form:input path="birth"/><form:errors path="birth"/>
                <input type="submit" value="submit">
            </form:form> 

          ps:path对应name

          4.Controller?#20889;?#30721;

        @Controller
        @RequestMapping("/form")
        public class formController {
            @RequestMapping(value="/add",method=RequestMethod.POST)    
            public String add(@Valid User u,BindingResult br){
                if(br.getErrorCount()>0){            
                    return "addUser";
                }
                return "showUser";
            }
            
            @RequestMapping(value="/add",method=RequestMethod.GET)
            public String add(Map<String,Object> map){
                map.put("user",new User());
                return "addUser";
            }
        }

          ps:

          1.因为jsp中使用了modelAttribute属性,所以必须在request域中有一个"user".

          [email protected] 表示按照在实体上标记的注解验证参数

          3.返回到原页面错误信息回回显,表单也会回显

          5.错误信息自定义

          在src目录下添加locale.properties

        NotEmpty.user.name=name can't not be empty
        Past.user.birth=birth should be a past value
        DateTimeFormat.user.birth=the format of input is wrong
        typeMismatch.user.birth=the format of input is wrong
        typeMismatch.user.id=the format of input is wrong

          在SpringMVC配置文件中配置

            <!-- configure the locale resource -->
            <bean id="messageSource" class="org.springframework.context.support.ResourceBundleMessageSource">
                <property name="basename" value="locale"></property>
            </bean>

          6.国际化显示

          在src下添加locale_zh_CN.properties

        username=账号
        password=密码

          locale.properties中添加

        username=user name
        password=password

          创建一个locale.jsp

          <body>
            <fmt:message key="username"></fmt:message>
            <fmt:message key="password"></fmt:message>
          </body>

          在SpringMVC中配置

            <!-- make the jsp page can be visited -->
            <mvc:view-controller path="/locale" view-name="locale"/>

          让locale.jsp在WEB-INF下也能直接访问

          最后,访问locale.jsp,切换浏览器语言,能看到账号和密码的语言也切换了

         十七、压轴大戏--整合SpringIOC和SpringMVC

          1.创建一个test.SpringMVC.integrate的包用来演示整合,并创建各类

          2.User实体类

        public class User {
            public int getId() {
                return id;
            }
            public void setId(int id) {
                this.id = id;
            }
            public String getName() {
                return name;
            }
            public void setName(String name) {
                this.name = name;
            }
            public Date getBirth() {
                return birth;
            }
            public void setBirth(Date birth) {
                this.birth = birth;
            }
            @Override
            public String toString() {
                return "User [id=" + id + ", name=" + name + ", birth=" + birth + "]";
            }    
            private int id;
            @NotEmpty
            private String name;
        
            @Past
            @DateTimeFormat(pattern="yyyy-MM-dd")
            private Date birth;
        }

          3.UserService类

        @Component
        public class UserService {
            public UserService(){
                System.out.println("UserService Constructor...\n\n\n\n\n\n");
            }
            
            public void save(){
                System.out.println("save");
            }
        }

          4.UserController

        @Controller
        @RequestMapping("/integrate")
        public class UserController {
            @Autowired
            private UserService userService;
            
            @RequestMapping("/user")
            public String saveUser(@RequestBody @ModelAttribute User u){
                System.out.println(u);
                userService.save();
                return "hello";
            }
        }

          5.Spring配置文件

          在src目录下创建SpringIOC的配置文件applicationContext.xml

        <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
        <beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
            xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
            xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans  
                http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd 
                http://www.springframework.org/schema/util 
                http://www.springframework.org/schema/util/spring-util-4.0.xsd
                http://www.springframework.org/schema/context
                http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context.xsd
                "
                xmlns:util="http://www.springframework.org/schema/util"
                xmlns:p="http://www.springframework.org/schema/p"
                xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"    
                >
            <context:component-scan base-package="test.SpringMVC.integrate">
                <context:exclude-filter type="annotation" 
                    expression="org.springframework.stereotype.Controller"/>
                <context:exclude-filter type="annotation" 
                    expression="org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.ControllerAdvice"/>        
            </context:component-scan>
            
        </beans>

          在Web.xml中添加配置

          <!-- configure the springIOC -->
          <listener>
              <listener-class>org.springframework.web.context.ContextLoaderListener</listener-class>
          </listener>
          <context-param>  
            <param-name>contextConfigLocation</param-name>  
            <param-value>classpath:applicationContext.xml</param-value>
          </context-param>

          6.在SpringMVC中进行一些配置,防止SpringMVC和SpringIOC对同一个对象的管理重合

        <!-- scan the package and the sub package -->
            <context:component-scan base-package="test.SpringMVC.integrate">
                <context:include-filter type="annotation" 
                    expression="org.springframework.stereotype.Controller"/>
                <context:include-filter type="annotation" 
                    expression="org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.ControllerAdvice"/>
            </context:component-scan>

         十八、SpringMVC详细运行流程图

         十九、SpringMVC与struts2的区别

          1、springmvc基于方法开发?#27169;瑂truts2基于类开发的。springmvc将url和controller里的方法?#25104;洹S成?#25104;功后springmvc生成一个Handler对象,对象中只包括了一个method。方法执行结束,形参数据销毁。springmvc的controller开发类似web service开发。

          2、springmvc可以进行单例开发,并且建议使用单例开发,struts2通过类的成员变量接收参数,无法使用单例,只能使用多例。

          3、经过实际测试,struts2速度慢,在于使用struts标签,如果使用struts建议使用jstl。

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